IN THIS SECTION
Health Council of the Netherlands Mobile phones and cancer, Part 3. Update and overall conclusions from epidemiological and animal studies, 2016
The available data do not allow drawing conclusions on whether there is an association between an increased carcinogenic risk and any form of accumulation of exposure, for instance expressed in the total call time, or the total amount of energy deposited by the electromagnetic fields generated by the phone in the head or in any other body part. So it is not possible to state whether a higher or longer exposure is less safe than a lower or shorter exposure. The Committee therefore considers the value of any measures to reduce exposure unclear. However, it is possible that some individuals would like to reduce their exposure, despite the conclusion of the Committee that there is no consistent evidence for an increased risk for tumours in the brain and other regions in the head associated with mobile phone use. The Knowledge Platform Electromagnetic Fields provides a number of suggestions for exposure reduction.
Public Health England, STUK, IARC, et al European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, 2015
Time trends in glioma incidence based on Nordic countries excluded any significant increased incidence attributable to mobile phone usage of up to 10 years.
Overall, currently available information does not provide unequivocal evidence that non-ionising radiation at low and high frequencies is a cause of cancer.
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk - Tenth report from SSM’s Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2015
However, in previous reports the Scientific Council of SSM has concluded that studies of brain tumours and other tumours of the head (vestibular schwannoma, salivary gland), together with national cancer incidence statistics from different countries, are not convincing in linking mobile phone use to the occurrence of glioma or other tumours of the head region among adults. Recent studies described in this report do not change this conclusion although these have covered longer exposure periods. Scientific uncertainty remains for regular mobile phone use for time periods longer than 15 years.
Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Safety Code 6 Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, 2015
At present, there is no scientific basis for the occurrence of acute, chronic and/or cumulative adverse health risks from RF field exposure at levels below the limits outlined in Safety Code 6. The hypotheses of other proposed adverse health effects occurring at levels below the exposure limits outlined in Safety Code 6 suffer from a lack of evidence of causality, biological plausibility and reproducibility and do not provide a credible foundation for making science-based recommendations for limiting human exposures to low-intensity RF fields.
European Commission, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), SCENIHR Opinion 2015
Overall, the epidemiological studies on mobile phone RF EMF exposure do not show an increased risk of brain tumours. Furthermore, they do not indicate an increased risk for other cancers of the head and neck region. … The results of cohort and incidence time trend studies do not support an increased risk for glioma while the possibility of an association with acoustic neuroma remains open. Epidemiological studies do not indicate increased risk for other malignant diseases, including childhood cancer.
Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel Report on A Review of Safety Code 6 (2013): Health Canada's Safety Limits for Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields
Available studies suggest that the basic restrictions recommended in Safety Code 6 do provide adequate protection against known adverse health effects across the radiofrequency range.
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risks, Ninth report from SSM's Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2014
In line with previous studies, new research does not indicate any health risks for the general public related to exposure from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from base stations for wireless networks, radio and TV transmitters, or wireless local data networks in schools or at home.
Biological Effects Policy Advisory Group (BEPAG), UK Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), Are there harmful Biological Effects of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields at frequencies up to 300 GHz?, Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), May 2014
BEPAG has concluded in this report that the balance of scientific evidence to date does not indicate that harmful effects occur in humans due to low-level exposure to EMFs. Our examination of the peer-reviewed literature published in the last two years has not justified a change in the overall conclusions published in our previous report in May 2012.
Public Health England for the Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research Programme Management Committee, Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research Programme (MTHR): Report 2012
(On Epidemiological Studies of Cancer): Taken together, the studies discussed in this section and those in Section 2 of the MTHR Report 2007 do not suggest that exposure to mobile phone signals is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Given the short time that mobile phone use has been widespread, none of these studies has been able properly to investigate risk in relation to long-term phone use.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Cancer Report 2014
Time trends in glioma incidence based on Nordic countries and the USA exclude any large increase in incidence attributable to mobile phone use, albeit with reference to a relatively short time from initiation of exposure. No association was observed between mobile phone use and other cancers.
Exposure from mobile phones, base stations and wireless networks - A statement by the Nordic radiation safety authorities
The overall data published in the scientific literature to date do not show adverse health effects from exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below the guidelines or limits adopted in the Nordic countries. However, epidemiological studies on long-term exposure to radio waves from mobile phones are still limited, especially studies on children and adolescents.
Since exposure of the general public, including children, to radio waves from the wireless local area networks and base stations is far below the exposure limits, there is no need to further limit exposure from these radio wave sources.
Mobile phone exposure
In May 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (&) decided to classify radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans. This classification was mainly based on the results of a few epidemiological studies indicating an elevated risk of brain cancer among adult mobile phone users.
Since 2011, a number of epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours and other tumours of the head have been published. The overall data on brain tumour and mobile phone use do not show an effect on tumour risk. (&) It is too early to draw firm conclusions when it comes to risk for brain tumours for children and adolescents, but the available literature to date does not show an increased risk.
Exposure from base station transmitters and wireless local area networks (&) Recent surveys have shown that despite the sharp increase in applications using wireless technology, the level of radio wave exposure in public outdoor areas as well as indoor in schools, offices and dwellings is far below the exposure limits.
Health Council of the Netherlands. Mobile phones and cancer. Part 1: Epidemiology of tumours in the head. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2013; publication no. 2013/11
[T]he final conclusion from this systematic analysis is then: there is no clear and consistent evidence for an increased risk for tumours in the brain and other regions in the head in association with up to approximately 13 years use of a mobile telephone, but such risk can also not be excluded. It is not possible to pronounce upon longer term use.
Scientific Council of Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) Recent Research on EMF and Health Risks, Eighth report from SSM's Council on Electromagnetic Fields, 2013
Subsequent to the last Council report published in 2010, IARC in 2011 classified radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF) fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) based on an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) associated with wireless phone use. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours and other tumours of the head (vestibular schwannomas, salivary gland) have been published. The collective of these studies, together with national cancer incidence statistics from different countries, is not convincing in linking mobile phone use to the occurrence of glioma or other tumours of the head region among adults. Although recent studies have covered longer exposure periods, scientific uncertainty remains for regular mobile phone use for longer than 13-15 years. It is also too early to draw firm conclusions regarding children and adolescents and risk for brain tumours, but the available literature to date does not indicate an increased risk.
Recent research on exposure from transmitters has mainly focused on cancer and symptoms, using improved study designs. These new data do not indicate health risks for the general public related to exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from base stations for mobile telephony, radio and TV transmitters, or wireless local data networks at home or in schools.